APC and AXIN2 Are Promising Biomarker Candidates for the Early Detection of Adenomas and Hyperplastic Polyps
Cancer Informatics 19: 1–8 (2020) -
Authors: Sama Rezasoltani, Mahrooyeh Hadizadeh, Mina Golmohammadi, Ehsan Nazemalhossini-Mojarad, Sina Salari, Hamid Rezvani, Hamid Asadzadeh-Aghdaei, Michael Ladomery, Chris Young, Fakhrosadat Anaraki, Sarah Almond and Maziar Ashrafian Bonab
Aberrant activation of the WNT/CTNNB1 pathway is notorious in colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we demonstrate that the expression of specific and crucial WNT signaling pathway genes is linked to disease progression in colonic adenomatous (AP) and hyperplastic (HP) polyps in an Iranian patient population. Thus, we highlight potential gene expression profiles as candidate novel biomarkers for the early detection of CRC. From a 12-month study (2016-2017), 44 biopsy samples were collected during colonoscopy from the patients with colorectal polyps and 10 healthy subjects for normalization. Clinical and demographic data were collected in all cases, and mRNA expression of APC, CTNNB1, CDH1, AXIN1, and AXIN2 genes was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CTNNB1 and CDH1 expression levels were unaltered in AP and HP subjects, whereas mRNA expression of APC was decreased in AP contrasted with HP subjects, with a significant association between APC downregulation and polyp size. Although AXIN1 showed no changes between AP and HP groups, a significant association between AXIN1 and dysplasia grade was found. Also, significant upregulation of AXIN2 in both AP and HP subjects was detected. In summary, we have shown increased expression of AXIN2 and decreased expression of APC correlating with grade of dysplasia and polyp size. Hence, AXIN2 and APC should be explored as biomarker candidates for early detection of AP and HP polyps in CRC.