P19 H-Ras induces G1/S phase delay maintaining cells in a reversible quiescence state
PLoS One 4, e8513 (2009) - PMID: 20046837
Authors: Camats, M, Kokolo, M, Heesom, KJ, Ladomery, M, and Bach-Elias, M
BACKGROUND: Three functional c-ras genes, known as c-H-ras, c-K-ras, and c-N-ras, have been largely studied in mammalian cells with important insights into normal and tumorigenic cellular signal transduction events. Two K-Ras mRNAs are obtained from the same pre-mRNA by alternative splicing. H-Ras pre-mRNA can also be alternatively spliced in the IDX and 4A terminal exons, yielding the p19 and p21 proteins, respectively. However, despite the Ras gene family’s established role in tumorigenic cellular signal transduction events, little is known about p19 function. Previous results showed that p19 did not interact with two known p21 effectors, Raf1 and Rin1, but was shown to interact with RACK1, a scaffolding protein that promotes multi-protein complexes in different signaling pathways (Cancer Res 2003, 63 p5178). This observation suggests that p19 and p21 play differential and complementary roles in the cell. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that p19 regulates telomerase activity through its interaction with p73alpha/beta proteins. We also found that p19 overexpression induces G1/S phase delay; an observation that correlates with hypophosphorylation of both Akt and p70SK6. Similarly, we also observed that FOXO1 is upregulated when p19 is overexpressed. The three observations of (1) hypophosphorylation of Akt, (2) G1/S phase delay and (3) upregulation of FOXO1 lead us to conclude that p19 induces G1/S phase delay, thereby maintaining cells in a reversible quiescence state and preventing entry into apoptosis. We then assessed the effect of p19 RNAi on HeLa cell growth and found that p19 RNAi increases cell growth, thereby having the opposite effect of arrest of the G1/S phase or producing a cellular quiescence state. SIGNIFICANCE: Interestingly, p19 induces FOXO1 that in combination with the G1/S phase delay and hypophosphorylation of both Akt and p70SK6 leads to maintenance of a reversible cellular quiescence state, thereby preventing entry into apoptosis.
Keywords: Alternative splicing,IDX,H-Ras,p19,p21,telomerase,PKC,TCTP,nm32-H1,p73,p63