Working with Hypoxia
Methods Mol Biol 1990:109-133 (2019) - PMID:31148067
Authors: Bowler E, Ladomery MR
A hypoxic environment can be defined as a region of the body or the whole body that is deprived of oxygen. Hypoxia is a feature of many diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, tissue trauma, stroke, and solid cancers. A loss of oxygen supply usually results in cell death; however, when cells gradually become hypoxic, they may survive and continue to thrive as described for conditions that promote metastatic growth. The role of hypoxia in these pathogenic pathways is therefore of great interest, and understanding the effect of hypoxia in regulating these mechanisms is fundamentally important. This chapter gives an extensive overview of these mechanisms. Moreover, given the challenges posed by tumor hypoxia we describe the current methods to simulate and detect hypoxic conditions followed by a discussion on current and experimental therapies that target hypoxic cells.
Keywords: BOLD-MRI; Carbonic anhydrase IX; Cobalt chloride; HIF pathway; HIF-1α; Hypoxia; Hypoxia chamber; Hypoxia-activated prodrugs; Microelectrode; Normoxia; Physoxia; Pimondiazole; Positron emission tomography; Reactive oxygen species; Tumor hypoxia